FreeBSD The Power to Serve

FreeBSD 4.3 Release Notes

                                 RELEASE NOTES
                           FreeBSD 4.3-RELEASE version

Any installation failures or crashes should be reported by using the
send-pr command (those preferring a Web-based interface can also see

For information about FreeBSD and the layout of the 4.3-RELEASE directory
(especially if you're installing from floppies!), see ABOUT.TXT.  For
installation instructions, see the INSTALL.TXT and HARDWARE.TXT files.

Table of contents:
1. What's new since 4.2-RELEASE

2. Supported Configurations
   2.1 Disk Controllers
   2.2 Ethernet cards
   2.3 FDDI
   2.4 ATM
   2.5 Misc

3. Obtaining FreeBSD
   3.1 FTP/Mail
   3.2 CDROM

4. Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD

5. Reporting problems, making suggestions, submitting code

6. Acknowledgments

1. What's new since 4.2-RELEASE


Write combining for crashdumps has been implemented.  This feature
is useful when write caching is disabled on both SCSI and IDE disks,
where large memory dumps could take up to an hour to complete.

The pccard driver and pccardc(8) now support multiple "beep types"
upon card insertion and removal.

The twe(4) driver for 3Ware Escalade controllers has been updated.

The an(4) driver for Cisco Aironet cards now supports Wired Equivalent
Privacy (WEP) encryption, settable via ancontrol(8).

The wi(4) and an(4) drivers now default to BSS (infrastructure) mode;
previously the default was ad-hoc mode.

The ray(4) driver, which supports the Webgear Aviator wireless network
cards, has been committed.  The operation of ray(4) interfaces can be
modified by raycontrol(8).

Support for the Adaptec FSA family of PCI-SCSI RAID controllers has
been added, in the form of the aac(4) driver.

Linksys Fast Ethernet PCCARD cards supported by the ed(4) driver now
require the addition of flag 0x80000 to their config line in
pccard.conf(5).  This flag is not optional.  These Linksys cards will
not be recognized without it.

A bug in the ed(4) driver that could cause panics with very short
packets and BPF or bridging active has been fixed.

A bug in FFS that could cause superblock corruption on very large
filesystems has been corrected.

The ISO-9660 filesystem now has a hook that supports a loadable
character conversion routine.  The sysutils/cd9660_unicode port
contains a set of common conversions.

A new NFS hash function (based on the Fowler/Noll/Vo hash algorithm)
has been implemented to improve NFS performance by increasing the
efficiency of the nfsnode hash tables.

The cs(4) driver has been updated.

bridge(4) and dummynet(4) have received some enhancements and bug fixes.

The ahc(4) driver has been updated.  Among various improvements are
improved compatibility with chips in "RAID Port" mode and systems with
AAA and ARO cards installed, as well as performance improvements.
Some bugs were also fixed, including a rare hang on Ultra2/U160

The cd(4) driver now has support for write operations.  This allows
writing to DVD-RAM, PD and similar drives that probe as CD devices.
Note that this change affects only random-access writeable devices, not
sequential-only writeable devices such as CD-R drives, which are
supported by cdrecord(1).

The "make buildkernel" procedure has changed slightly.  It now gets
the name of the configuration(s) to build from the KERNCONF variable
(KERNEL is still valid, but deprecated).  The installed kernel name
can be changed with the INSTKERNEL variable.  The NO_KERNELCLEAN
variable prevents cleaning of the kernel build directory (which is now
done via "make clean", rather than "config -r").

kobj functionality has been merged from -CURRENT to better support
sound drivers.

Separate drivers for the SoundBlaster 8 and Soundblaster 16 now
replace an older, unified driver.

A driver for the ESS Maestro-3/Allegro has been added, however due to
licensing restrictions, it cannot be compiled into the kernel.  To use
this driver, add the following line to /boot/loader.conf:


The pcm(4) driver now supports the CMedia CMI8338/CMI8738 sound chips,
as well as the CS4281 sound chip.

When sound modules are built, one can now load all the drivers and
infrastructure by "kldload snd".

The isp(4) driver has been updated.

ipfilter has been updated to 3.4.16.

ipfw(8) has a new feature ("me") that allows for packet matching on
interfaces with dynamically-changing IP addresses.

TCP has received some bug fixes for its delayed ACK behavior.

TCP now supports the NewReno modification to the TCP Fast Recovery
algorithm.  This behavior can be controlled via the
net.inet.tcp.newreno sysctl variable.

TCP now uses a more aggressive timeout for initial SYN segments; this
allows initial connection attempts to be dropped much faster.

ICMP UNREACH_FILTER_PROHIB messages can now RST TCP connections in the
SYN_SENT state if the correct sequence numbers are sent back, as
controlled by the net.inet.tcp.icmp_may_rst sysctl.

A new sysctl net.inet.ip.check_interface, which is off by default,
causes IP to verify that an incoming packet arrives on an interface
that has an address matching the packet's destination address.

The ata(4) driver has been updated.

To provide more flexible configuration, the various options for the
ata(4) driver are now boot loader tunables, rather than kernel
configure-time options.

The ata(4) driver now supports ATA66 and ATA100 mode on Acer Alladin

kqueue(2) has been extended to the device layer, and has also received
some bug fixes.

Some signal-handling fixes for Linux have been added, which improves
compatibility with signal-intensive programs running under Linux

The ida disk driver now has crashdump support.

The mly(4) driver has received some changes in queueing, concurrency
improvements, and stability fixes.

Several minor bugs have been fixed in the VLAN networking code.

Vinum has received some bugfixes.

Changes specific to Alpha architecture:

   A bug in the machine-dependent code for the AlphaServer 1000 and 1000A
   has been fixed; it had caused only EV4-equipped AS1000 and EV5-equipped
   AS1000A systems to work.

   The API UP1100 mainboard has been verified to work correctly.

   The API CS20 1U high server has been verified to work correctly.

   AlphaServer 2100A ("Lynx") support has been added.

   The AlphaServer 4000 and 4100 refuse to boot from the FreeBSD install
   floppy or install CDROM.  The workaround is to "dd" the 2.88MB floppy image
   onto a hard disk and boot the installer from it. Once sysinstall(8) is
   running, a normal installation can be performed. Similar problems have
   been observed on the AlphaServer 1200 and 8400.

   For AlphaServer 4100 adapter cards with PCI bridge chips might cause
   trouble. In addition, the capability of booting from an adapter might be
   influenced by the placement of the adapter card on a specific PCI hose.
   Please use 'send-pr' to report any problems you might encounter in this area.


Some fixes were applied to the Kerberos IV implementation related to
environment variables, a possible buffer overrun, and overwriting
ticket files.

telnet(1) now does a better job of sanitizing its environment.

Several vulnerabilities in procfs(4) were fixed (see security advisory

A bug in ipfw(8) and ip6fw(8) in which inbound TCP segments could
incorrectly be treated as being part of an "established" connection
has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:08).

A bug in crontab(8) that could allow users to read any file on the
system in valid crontab(5) syntax has been fixed (see security
advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:09).

A vulnerability in inetd(8) that could allow read-access to the
initial 16 bytes of wheel-accessible files has been fixed (see
security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:11).

A bug in periodic(8) that used insecure temporary files has been
corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:12).

To fix a remotely-exploitable buffer overflow, BIND has been updated
to 8.2.3 (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:18).

OpenSSH now has code to prevent (instead of just mitigating through
connection limits) an attack that can lead to guessing the server key
(not host key) by regenerating the server key when an RSA failure is
detected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:24).

A bug in ICMP that could cause an attacker to disrupt TCP and UDP
"sessions" has been corrected.

A bug in timed(8), which caused it to crash if sent certain malformed
packets, has been corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:28).

A bug in rwhod(8), which caused it to crash if sent certain malformed
packets, has been corrected (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:29).

A security hole in FreeBSD's FFS and EXT2FS implementations, which
allowed a race condition that could cause users to have unauthorized
access to data, has been fixed (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:30).

A remotely-exploitable vulnerability in ntpd(8) has been closed (see
security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:31).

A security hole in IPFilter's fragment cache has been closed (see
security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:32).

Buffer overflows in glob(3), which could cause arbitrary code to be
run on an FTP server, have been closed.  In addition, to prevent some
forms of DOS attacks, glob(3) now allows specification of a limit on
the number of pathname matches it will return.  ftpd(8) now uses this
feature (see security advisory FreeBSD-SA-01:33).

Initial sequence numbers in TCP are more thoroughly randomized, using
an algorithm obtained from OpenBSD.

A number of programs have had output formatting strings corrected so
as to reduce the risk of vulnerabilities.

A number of programs that use temporary files now do so more securely.


newfs(1) now implements write combining, which can make creation of
new filesystems up to seven times faster.

A number of buffer overflows in config(8) have been fixed.

Binutils have been upgraded to 2.10.1.

OpenSSL has been upgraded to 0.9.6.

OpenSSL now has support for machine-dependent ASM optimizations,
activated by the new CPUTYPE/MACHINE_CPU Makefile variables.

file(1) has been contribify-ed, and imported as version 3.33.

groff(1) and its related utilities have been updated to FSF version

indent(1) has gained some new formatting options.

sysinstall(8) now uses some more intuitive defaults thanks to some new
dialog support functions.

sysinstall(8) now properly preserves /etc/mail during a binary

The default root partition in sysinstall(8) is now 100MB.

libdisk can now do install-time configuration of the i386 boot0 boot

rm(1) -v now displays the entire pathname of a file being

lpr(1), lpq(1), and lpd(8) have received a few minor enhancements.

OpenSSH has been upgraded to 2.3.0.  This version adds support for the
Rijndael encryption algorithm.

Kerberos compatability has been added to OpenSSH.

OpenSSH has been modified to be more resistant to traffic analysis by
requiring that "non-echoed" characters are still echoed back in a null
packet, as well as by padding passwords sent so as not to hint at
password lengths.

syslogd(8) now supports a "LOG_CONSOLE" facility (disabled by
default), which can be used to log /dev/console output.

cdcontrol(1) now uses the CDROM environment variable to pick a default

All packages and ports now contain an "origin" directive, which makes
it easier for programs like pkg_version(1) to determine the directory
from which a package was built.

pkg_info(1) can now accept a -g flag for verifying an installed
package against its recorded checksums (to see if it's been modified
post-installation).  Naturally, this mechanism is only as secure as
the contents of /var/db/pkg if it's to be used for auditing

pkg_create(1) and pkg_add(1) can now work with packages that have
been compressed using bzip2(1).  pkg_add(1) will use the
PACKAGEROOT environment variable to determine a mirror site for new

pkg_info(1) now supports globbing against names of installed packages.
The -G option disables this behavior, and the -x option causes regular
expression matching instead of shell globbing.

pkg_sign(1) and pkg_check(1) have been added to digitally sign and
verify the signatures on binary package files.

pkg_update(1), a utility to update installed packages and update their
dependencies, has been added.

pkg_delete(1) now can perform glob/regexp matching of package names.
In addition, it supports the -a option for removing all packages and
the -i option for rm(1)-style interactive confirmation.

pkg_create(1) now records dependencies in dependency order rather than
in the order specified on the command line.  This improves the
functioning of "pkg_add -r".

pkg_version(1) now has a version number comparison routine that
corresponds to the Porters Handbook.  It also has a -t option for
testing address comparisons.

awk has been upgraded from gawk-3.0.4 to gawk-3.0.6.  This fixes a number
of non-critical bugs and includes a few performance tweaks.

Shortly after the receipt of a SIGINFO signal (normally control-T from
the controlling tty), fsck(8) will now output a line indicating the
current phase number and progress information relevant to the current

pwd(1) can now double as realpath(1), a program to resolve pathnames
to their underlying physical paths.

gcc(1) has been updated to 2.95.3.

gcc(1) now uses a unified libgcc rather than a separate one for threaded
and non-threaded programs.  /usr/lib/libgcc_r.a can be removed.

config(8) is now better about converting various warnings that should
have been errors into actual fatal errors with an exit code.  This
ensures that that "make buildkernel" doesn't quietly ignore them and
build a bogus kernel without a human to read the errors.

In /etc/ssh/sshd_config, the ConnectionsPerPeriod parameter has been
deprecated in favor of MaxStartups.

find(1) now takes the -empty flag, which returns true if a file or
directory is empty.

find(1) now takes the -iname and -ipath primaries for case-insensitive
matches, and the -regexp and -iregexp primaries for regular-expression
matches.  The -E flag now enables extended regular expressions.

ldconfig(8) now checks directory ownerships and permissions for
greater security; these checks can be disabled with the -i

sendmail(8) and associated utilities upgraded from version 8.11.1 to
version 8.11.3.  See /usr/src/contrib/sendmail/RELEASE_NOTES for more

New make.conf options: SENDMAIL_MC and SENDMAIL_ADDITIONAL_MC.  See
/etc/defaults/make.conf for more information.

The Makefile in /etc/mail now supports: the new SENDMAIL_MC make.conf
option; the ability to build .cf files from .mc files; generalized map
rebuilding; rebuilding the aliases file; and the ability to stop, start,
and restart sendmail.

vidcontrol(1) now accepts a -g parameter to select custom text
geometry in the VESA_800x600 raster text mode.

The rfork_thread(3) library call has been added as a helper function
to rfork(2).  Using this function should avoid the need to implement
complex stack swap code.

The compat3x distribution has been updated to include libraries
present in FreeBSD 3.5.1-RELEASE.

gperf has been updated to 2.7.2.

Catching up with most other network utilities in the base system,
lpr(1), lpd(8), syslogd(8), and logger(1) are now all IPv6-capable.

When requested to delete multiple packages, pkg_delete(1) will now
attempt to remove them in dependency order rather than the order
specified on the command line.

burncd(8) now supports a -m option for multisession mode (the default
behavior now is to close disks as single-session).  A -l option to
take a list of image files from a filename was also added; "-" can be
used as a filename for stdin.

tar(1) now supports the TAR_RSH variable, principally to enable the
use of ssh(1) as a transport.

Bugs in make(1), among which include broken null suffix behavior, bad
assumptions about current directory permissions, and potential buffer
overflows, have been fixed.

The new CPUTYPE make.conf variable controls the compilation of
processor-specific optimizations in various pieces of code such as

Boot-time syscons configuration was moved to a machine-independent

login(1) now exports environment variables set by PAM modules.

ipfstat(8) now supports the -t option to turn on a top(1)-like

tftpd(8) now takes the -c and -C options, which allow the server to
chroot(2) based on the IP address of the connecting client.  tftp(1)
and tftpd(8) can now transfer files larger than 65535 blocks.

The lastlogin(1) utility, which prints the last login time of each
user, has been imported from NetBSD.

/usr/src/share/examples/BSD_daemon/ now contains a scalable Beastie

bc has been updated from 1.04 to 1.06.

savecore(8) now supports a -k option to prevent clearing a crash dump
after saving it.  It also attempts to avoid writing large stretches of
zeros to crash dump files to save space and time.

tcsh has been updated to version 6.10.

The default value for the CVS_RSH variable (used by cvs(1)) is now
ssh, rather than rsh.

disklabel(8) now supports partition sizes expressed in kilobytes,
megabytes, or gigabytes, in addition to sectors.

Kerberos IV has been updated to 1.0.5.

Heimdal has been updated to 0.3e.

dump(8) now supports inheritance of the "nodump" flag down a

The ISC DHCP client has been updated to 2.0pl5.

stty(1) now has support for an "erase2" control character, so that
both "delete" and "backspace" can be used to erase characters.

split(1) now has the ability to split a file longer than 2GB.

units(1) has received some updates and bugfixes.

netstat(1) now keeps track of input and output packets on a
per-address basis for each interface.

netstat(1) now has a -W flag that tells it not to truncate addresses,
even if they're too long for the column they're printed in.

sockstat(1) now has -c and -l flags for listing connected and
listening sockets, respectively.

Many manual pages were improved, both in terms of their formatting
markup and in their content.

"lprm -" now works for remote printer queues.

mergemaster(8) now sources an /etc/mergemaster.rc file and also
prompts the user to run recommended commands (such as "newaliases") as

ftpd(8) now supports a -r flag for read-only mode and a -E flag to
disable EPSV.  It also has some fixes to reduce information leakage
and the ability to specify compile-time port ranges.

rc(8) now has an framework for handling dependencies between
rc.conf(5) variables.

The default TCP port range used by libfetch for passive FTP retrievals
has changed; this affects the behavior of fetch(1), which has gained the
-U option to restore the old behavior.

portmap(8) now takes a -h option to indicate the IP addresses to which
it should bind.  This option may be specified multiple times and is
typically necessary for multi-homed hosts.

GNATS has been updated to 3.113.

tail(1) now has the ability to work on files longer than 2GB.

2. Supported Configurations
FreeBSD currently runs on a wide variety of ISA, VLB, EISA, MCA and PCI
bus based PC's, ranging from 386sx to Pentium class machines (though the
386sx is not recommended).  Support for generic IDE drive
configurations, various SCSI controller, network and serial cards is
also provided.

What follows is a list of all peripherals currently known to work with
FreeBSD.  Other configurations may also work, we have simply not as yet
received confirmation of this.

2.1. Disk Controllers

Adaptec 1535 ISA SCSI controllers
Adaptec 154x series ISA SCSI controllers
Adaptec 164x series MCA SCSI controllers
Adaptec 174x series EISA SCSI controller in standard and enhanced mode.
Adaptec 274X/284X/2920C/294x/2950/3940/3950 (Narrow/Wide/Twin) series
EISA/VLB/PCI SCSI controllers.
Adaptec AIC7850, AIC7860, AIC7880, AIC789x, on-board SCSI controllers.
Adaptec 1510 series ISA SCSI controllers (not for bootable devices)
Adaptec 152x series ISA SCSI controllers
Adaptec AIC-6260 and AIC-6360 based boards, which includes the AHA-152x
and SoundBlaster SCSI cards.

Adaptec 2100S, 2400A, 3200S, and 3400S SCSI RAID controllers.

Adaptec FSA family RAID controllers:
    Adaptec AAC-2622
    Adaptec AAC-364
    Adaptec AAC-3642
    Dell PERC 2/QC
    Dell PERC 2/Si
    Dell PERC 3/Di
    Dell PERC 3/QC
    Dell PERC 3/Si
    HP NetRAID-4M

AdvanSys SCSI controllers (all models).

BusLogic MultiMaster controllers:

[ Please note that BusLogic/Mylex "Flashpoint" adapters are NOT yet supported ]

BusLogic MultiMaster "W" Series Host Adapters:
    BT-948, BT-958, BT-958D
BusLogic MultiMaster "C" Series Host Adapters:
    BT-946C, BT-956C, BT-956CD, BT-445C, BT-747C, BT-757C, BT-757CD, BT-545C,
BusLogic MultiMaster "S" Series Host Adapters:
    BT-445S, BT-747S, BT-747D, BT-757S, BT-757D, BT-545S, BT-542D, BT-742A,
BusLogic MultiMaster "A" Series Host Adapters:
    BT-742A, BT-542B

AMI FastDisk controllers that are true BusLogic MultiMaster clones are also

The Buslogic/Bustek BT-640 and Storage Dimensions SDC3211B and SDC3211F
Microchannel (MCA) bus adapters are also supported.

SmartRAID IV SCSI/RAID controllers are supported.

DPT SmartRAID V and VI SCSI RAID controllers:
    PM1554, PM2554, PM2654, PM2865, PM2754, PM3755, PM3757

AMI MegaRAID Express and Enterprise family RAID controllers:
    MegaRAID Series 418
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1200 (Series 428)
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1300 (Series 434)
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1400 (Series 438)
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1500 (Series 467)
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1600 (Series 471)
    MegaRAID Elite 1500 (Series 467)
    MegaRAID Elite 1600 (Series 493)
    MegaRAID Express 100 (Series 466WS)
    MegaRAID Express 200 (Series 466)
    MegaRAID Express 300 (Series 490)
    MegaRAID Express 500 (Series 475)
    Dell PERC
    Dell PERC 2/SC
    Dell PERC 2/DC
    Dell PERC 3/DCL
    HP NetRAID-1si
    HP NetRAID-3si
    HP Embedded NetRAID
Booting from these controllers is supported.

Mylex DAC960 and DAC1100 RAID controllers with 2.x, 3.x, 4.x and 5.x
    AcceleRAID 150
    AcceleRAID 250
    eXtremeRAID 1100
Booting from these controllers is supported. EISA adapters are not

Mylex PCI to SCSI RAID controllers with 6.x firmware:
    AcceleRAID 160
    AcceleRAID 170
    AcceleRAID 352
    eXtremeRAID 2000
    eXtremeRAID 3000
Compatible Mylex controllers not listed should work, but have not been

3ware Escalade ATA RAID controllers.  All members of the 5000,
6000, and 7000 series are supported.

SymBios (formerly NCR) 53C810, 53C810a, 53C815, 53C820, 53C825a,
53C860, 53C875, 53C875j, 53C885, 53C895 and 53C896 PCI SCSI controllers:
        ASUS SC-200
        Data Technology DTC3130 (all variants)
    Diamond FirePort (all)
        NCR cards (all)
        Symbios cards (all)
        Tekram DC390W, 390U and 390F
        Tyan S1365

NCR 53C500 based PC-Card SCSI host adapters:
    KME KXLC002(TAXAN ICD-400PN, etc.), KXLC004
    Macnica Miracle SCSI-II mPS110
    Media Intelligent MSC-110, MSC-200
    NEC PC-9801N-J03R
    New Media Corporation BASICS SCSI
    Qlogic Fast SCSI
    RATOC REX-9530, REX-5572 (as SCSI only)

TMC 18C30, 18C50 based ISA/PC-Card SCSI host adapters:
    Future Domain SCSI2GO
    ICM PSC-2401 SCSI
    Melco IFC-SC
    RATOC REX-5536, REX-5536AM, REX-5536M, REX-9836A

Qlogic Controllers and variants:
    Qlogic 1020, 1040 SCSI and Ultra SCSI host adapters
    Qlogic 1240 dual Ultra SCSI controllers
    Qlogic 1080 Ultra2 LVD and 1280 Dual Ultra2 LVD controllers
    Qlogic 12160 Ultra3 LVD controllers
    Qlogic 2100 and Qlogic 2200 Fibre Channel SCSI controllers
    Performance Technology SBS440 ISP1000 variants
    Performance Technology SBS450 ISP1040 variants
    Performance Technology SBS470 ISP2100 variants
    Antares Microsystems P-0033 ISP2100 variants

DTC 3290 EISA SCSI controller in 1542 emulation mode.

Workbit Ninja SCSI-3 based PC-Card SCSI host adapters:
    Alpha-Data AD-PCS201

With all supported SCSI controllers, full support is provided for
SCSI-I & SCSI-II peripherals, including hard disks, optical disks,
tape drives (including DAT and 8mm Exabyte), medium changers, processor
target devices and CDROM drives.  WORM devices that support CDROM commands
are supported for read-only access by the CDROM driver.  WORM/CD-R/CD-RW
writing support is provided by cdrecord, which is in the ports tree.

The following CD-ROM type systems are supported at this time:
(cd)    SCSI interface (also includes ProAudio Spectrum and
        SoundBlaster SCSI)
(matcd) Matsushita/Panasonic (Creative SoundBlaster) proprietary
        interface (562/563 models)
(scd)   Sony proprietary interface (all models)
(acd)   ATAPI IDE interface

The following drivers were supported under the old SCSI subsystem, but are
NOT YET supported under the new CAM SCSI subsystem:

  NCR5380/NCR53400 ("ProAudio Spectrum") SCSI controller.

  UltraStor 14F, 24F and 34F SCSI controllers.

  Seagate ST01/02 SCSI controllers.

  Future Domain 8xx/950 series SCSI controllers.

  WD7000 SCSI controller.

  [ Note:  There is work-in-progress to port the UltraStor driver to
    the new CAM SCSI framework, but no estimates on when or if it will
    be completed. ]

Unmaintained drivers, they might or might not work for your hardware:

  (mcd)   Mitsumi proprietary CD-ROM interface (all models)

2.2. Ethernet cards

Adaptec Duralink PCI Fast Ethernet adapters based on the Adaptec
AIC-6915 Fast Ethernet controller chip, including the following:
  ANA-62011 64-bit single port 10/100baseTX adapter
  ANA-62022 64-bit dual port 10/100baseTX adapter
  ANA-62044 64-bit quad port 10/100baseTX adapter
  ANA-69011 32-bit single port 10/100baseTX adapter
  ANA-62020 64-bit single port 100baseFX adapter

Allied-Telesis AT1700 and RE2000 cards

Alteon Networks PCI Gigabit Ethernet NICs based on the Tigon 1 and Tigon 2
chipsets, including the following:
  3Com 3c985-SX (Tigon 1 and 2)
  Alteon AceNIC 1000baseSX (Tigon 1 and 2)
  Alteon AceNIC 1000baseT (Tigon 2)
  DEC/Compaq EtherWORKS 1000
  Farallon PN9000SX
  NEC Gigabit Ethernet
  Netgear GA620 (Tigon 2)
  Netgear GA620T (Tigon 2, 1000baseT)
  Silicon Graphics Gigabit Ethernet

AMD PCnet/PCI (79c970 & 53c974 or 79c974)
PCnet/Home, and HomePNA.

SMC Elite 16 WD8013 Ethernet interface, and most other WD8003E,
WD8003EBT, WD8003W, WD8013W, WD8003S, WD8003SBT and WD8013EBT
based clones.  SMC Elite Ultra.  SMC Etherpower II.

RealTek 8129/8139 Fast Ethernet NICs including the following:
  Allied Telesyn AT2550
  Allied Telesyn AT2500TX
  Genius GF100TXR (RTL8139)
  NDC Communications NE100TX-E
  OvisLink LEF-8129TX
  OvisLink LEF-8139TX
  Netronix Inc. EA-1210 NetEther 10/100
  KTX-9130TX 10/100 Fast Ethernet
  Accton "Cheetah" EN1207D (MPX 5030/5038; RealTek 8139 clone)
  SMC EZ Card 10/100 PCI 1211-TX

Lite-On 82c168/82c169 PNIC Fast Ethernet NICs including the following:
  LinkSys EtherFast LNE100TX
  NetGear FA310-TX Rev. D1
  Matrox FastNIC 10/100
  Kingston KNE110TX

Macronix 98713, 98713A, 98715, 98715A and 98725 Fast Ethernet NICs
  Accton EN1217 (98715A)
  Adico AE310TX (98715A)
  Compex RL100-TX
  CNet Pro120A (98713 or 98713A)
  CNet Pro120B (98715)
  NDC Communications SFA100A (98713A)
  SVEC PN102TX (98713)

Macronix/Lite-On PNIC II LC82C115 Fast Ethernet NICs including the following:
  LinkSys EtherFast LNE100TX Version 2

Winbond W89C840F Fast Ethernet NICs including the following:
  Trendware TE100-PCIE

VIA Technologies VT3043 "Rhine I" and VT86C100A "Rhine II" Fast Ethernet
NICs including the following:
  Hawking Technologies PN102TX
  D-Link DFE-530TX
  AOpen/Acer ALN-320

Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900 and SiS 7016 PCI Fast Ethernet NICs

Sundance Technologies ST201 PCI Fast Ethernet NICs including
the following:
  D-Link DFE-550TX

SysKonnect SK-984x PCI Gigabit Ethernet cards including the following:
  SK-9841 1000baseLX single mode fiber, single port
  SK-9842 1000baseSX multimode fiber, single port
  SK-9843 1000baseLX single mode fiber, dual port
  SK-9844 1000baseSX multimode fiber, dual port

Texas Instruments ThunderLAN PCI NICs, including the following:
  Compaq Netelligent 10, 10/100, 10/100 Proliant, 10/100 Dual-Port
  Compaq Netelligent 10/100 TX Embedded UTP, 10 T PCI UTP/Coax, 10/100 TX UTP
  Compaq NetFlex 3P, 3P Integrated, 3P w/ BNC
  Olicom OC-2135/2138, OC-2325, OC-2326 10/100 TX UTP
  Racore 8165 10/100baseTX
  Racore 8148 10baseT/100baseTX/100baseFX multi-personality

ADMtek Inc. AL981-based PCI Fast Ethernet NICs
ADMtek Inc. AN985-based PCI Fast Ethernet NICs
ADMtek Inc. AN986-based USB Ethernet NICs including the following:
  LinkSys USB100TX
  Billionton USB100
  Melco Inc. LUA-TX
  D-Link DSB-650TX
  SMC 2202USB

CATC USB-EL1210A-based USB Ethernet NICs including the following:
  CATC Netmate
  CATC Netmate II
  Belkin F5U111

Kawasaki LSI KU5KUSB101B-based USB Ethernet NICs including
the following:
  LinkSys USB10T
  Entrega NET-USB-E45
  Peracom USB Ethernet Adapter
  3Com 3c19250
  ADS Technologies USB-10BT
  ATen UC10T
  Netgear EA101
  D-Link DSB-650
  SMC 2102USB
  SMC 2104USB
  Corega USB-T

ASIX Electronics AX88140A PCI NICs, including the following:
  Alfa Inc. GFC2204
  CNet Pro110B

DEC DC21040, DC21041, or DC21140 based NICs (SMC Etherpower 8432T, DE245, etc)

DEC/Intel 21143 based Fast Ethernet NICs, including the following:
  DEC DE500-BA
  Compaq Presario 7900 series built-in Ethernet
  D-Link DFE-570TX
  Kingston KNE100TX
  LinkSys EtherFast 10/100 Instant GigaDrive built-in Ethernet

Davicom DM9100 and DM9102 PCI Fast Ethernet NICs, including the
  Jaton Corporation XpressNet

Fujitsu MB86960A/MB86965A, including the following:
  CONTEC C-NET(PC)C Ethernet
  Eiger Labs EPX-10BT
  Fujitsu FMV-J182, FMV-J182A, MBH10302, MBH10303 Ethernet PCMCIA
  Fujitsu Towa LA501 Ethernet
  HITACHI HT-4840-11
  NextCom J Link NC5310
  RATOC REX-5588, REX-9822, REX-4886, REX-R280

HP PC Lan+ cards (model numbers: 27247B and 27252A).

Intel EtherExpress 16
Intel EtherExpress Pro/10
Intel EtherExpress Pro/100B PCI Fast Ethernet
Intel InBusiness 10/100 PCI Network Adapter
Intel PRO/100+ Management Adapter

Isolan AT 4141-0 (16 bit)
Isolink 4110     (8 bit)

Novell NE1000, NE2000, and NE2100 Ethernet interface.

PCI network cards emulating the NE2000: RealTek 8029, NetVin 5000,
Winbond W89C940, Surecom NE-34, VIA VT86C926.

3Com 3C501 cards

3Com 3C503 Etherlink II

3Com 3c505 Etherlink/+

3Com 3C507 Etherlink 16/TP

3Com 3C509, 3C529 (MCA), 3C579,
3C589/589B/589C/589D/589E/XE589ET/574TX/574B (PC-card/PCMCIA),
3C590/592/595/900/905/905B/905C PCI,
3C556/556B MiniPCI,
and EISA (Fast) Etherlink III / (Fast) Etherlink XL

3Com 3c980/3c980B Fast Etherlink XL server adapter

3Com 3cSOHO100-TX OfficeConnect adapter

Crystal Semiconductor CS89x0-based NICs, including:
  IBM Etherjet ISA

NE2000 compatible PC-Card (PCMCIA) Ethernet/FastEthernet cards,
including the following:
  AR-P500 Ethernet card
  Accton EN2212/EN2216/UE2216(OEM)
  Allied Telesis CentreCOM LA100-PCM_V2
  AmbiCom 10BaseT card
  BayNetworks NETGEAR FA410TXC Fast Ethernet
  CNet BC40 adapter
  Compex Net-A adapter
  CyQ've ELA-010
  D-Link DE-650/660
  Danpex EN-6200P2
  IBM Creditcard Ethernet I/II
  IC-CARD Ethernet/IC-CARD+ Ethernet
  Linksys EC2T/PCMPC100,EtherFast 10/100 PC Card (PCMPC100,V2,V3)
  NDC Ethernet Instant-Link
  National Semiconductor InfoMover NE4100
  Network Everywhere Ethernet 10BaseT PC Card
  Planex FNW-3600-T
  Socket LP-E
  Surecom EtherPerfect EP-427
  TDK LAK-CD031,Grey Cell GCS2000 Ethernet Card
  Telecom Device SuperSocket RE450T

Megahertz X-Jack Ethernet PC-Card CC-10BT

Xircom CreditCard adapters(16bit) and workalikes
    Accton EN2226/Fast EtherCard (16-bit verison)
    Compaq Netelligent 10/100 PC Card
    Intel EtherExpress PRO/100 Mobile Adapter (16-bit verison)
    Xircom 10/100 Network PC Card adapter
    Xircom Realport card + modem(Ethernet part)
    Xircom CreditCard Ethernet 10/100
    Xircom CreditCard 10Base-T "CreditCard Ethernet Adaptor IIps" (PS-CE2-10)
    Xircom CreditCard Ethernet 10/100 + modem (Ethernet part)

National Semiconductor DP8393X (SONIC) Ethernet cards
    NEC PC-9801-83, -84, -103, and -104
    NEC PC-9801N-25 and -J02R

2.3. FDDI


2.4. ATM

   o ATM Host Interfaces
        - FORE Systems, Inc. PCA-200E ATM PCI Adapters
        - Efficient Networks, Inc. ENI-155p ATM PCI Adapters

   o ATM Signaling Protocols
        - The ATM Forum UNI 3.1 signaling protocol
        - The ATM Forum UNI 3.0 signaling protocol
        - The ATM Forum ILMI address registration
        - FORE Systems' proprietary SPANS signaling protocol
        - Permanent Virtual Channels (PVCs)

   o IETF "Classical IP and ARP over ATM" model
        - RFC 1483, "Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5"
        - RFC 1577, "Classical IP and ARP over ATM"
        - RFC 1626, "Default IP MTU for use over ATM AAL5"
        - RFC 1755, "ATM Signaling Support for IP over ATM"
        - RFC 2225, "Classical IP and ARP over ATM"
        - RFC 2334, "Server Cache Synchronization Protocol (SCSP)"
        - Internet Draft draft-ietf-ion-scsp-atmarp-00.txt,
                "A Distributed ATMARP Service Using SCSP"

   o ATM Sockets interface

2.5. Misc

AST 4 port serial card using shared IRQ.

ARNET 8 port serial card using shared IRQ.
ARNET (now Digiboard) Sync 570/i high-speed serial.

Boca BB1004 4-Port serial card (Modems NOT supported)
Boca IOAT66 6-Port serial card (Modems supported)
Boca BB1008 8-Port serial card (Modems NOT supported)
Boca BB2016 16-Port serial card (Modems supported)

Comtrol Rocketport card.

Cyclades Cyclom-y Serial Board.

STB 4 port card using shared IRQ.

SDL Communications Riscom/8 Serial Board.
SDL Communications RISCom/N2 and N2pci high-speed sync serial boards.

Stallion multiport serial boards: EasyIO, EasyConnection 8/32 & 8/64,
ONboard 4/16 and Brumby.

Specialix SI/XIO/SX ISA, EISA and PCI serial expansion cards/modules.

Adlib, SoundBlaster, SoundBlaster Pro, ProAudioSpectrum, Gravis UltraSound
and Roland MPU-401 sound cards. (snd driver)

Advance Asound 100, 110 and Logic ALS120
C-Media CMI-8x38
Crystal Semiconductor CS461x/462x/428x
Crystal Semiconductor CS4281
ENSONIQ AudioPCI ES1370/1371
ESS ES1868, ES1869, ES1879 and ES1888
ESS Maestro-1, Maestro-2, and Maestro-2E
ESS Maestro-3/Allegro
ForteMedia fm801
Gravis UltraSound MAX/PnP
MSS/WSS Compatible DSPs
NeoMagic 256AV/ZX
OPTi 931/82C931
SoundBlaster, Soundblaster Pro, Soundblaster AWE-32, Soundblaster AWE-64
Trident 4DWave DX/NX
VIA Technologies VT82C686A
Yamaha DS1 and DS1e
(newpcm driver)

Connectix QuickCam
Matrox Meteor Video frame grabber
Creative Labs Video Spigot frame grabber
Cortex1 frame grabber
Hauppauge Wincast/TV boards (PCI)
Intel Smart Video Recorder III
Various Frame grabbers based on Brooktree Bt848 / Bt878 chip.

HP4020, HP6020, Philips CDD2000/CDD2660 and Plasmon CD-R drives.

PS/2 mice

Standard PC Joystick

X-10 power controllers

GPIB and Transputer drivers.

Genius and Mustek hand scanners.

Xilinx XC6200 based reconfigurable hardware cards compatible with
the HOT1 from Virtual Computers (

Support for Dave Mills experimental Loran-C receiver.

Lucent Technologies WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11 PCMCIA and ISA standard speed
(2Mbps) and turbo speed (6Mbps) wireless network adapters and workalikes
3COM 3crwe737A AirConnect Wireless LAN PC Card
Cabletron RoamAbout 802.11 DS
Compaq WL100
Corega KK Wireless LAN PCC-11, PCCA-11
Laneed Wireless card
Farallon Skyline 11Mbps Wireless
ICOM SL-1100
Intel PRO/Wireless 2011 LAN PC Card
IO Data WN-B11/PCM
Melco Airconnect WLI-PCM-L11
NCR WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11
NEC Wireless Card CMZ-RT-WP, PC-WL/11C, PK-WL001
Note: the ISA versions of these adapters are actually PCMCIA cards
combined with an ISA to PCMCIA bridge card, so both kinds of devices
work with the same driver.

Aironet 4500/4800 series 802.11 wireless adapters. The PCMCIA,
PCI and ISA adapters are all supported.
Cisco Systems Aironet 340 Series (includes 340, 341, and 342 models)
11Mbps 802.11 wireless NIC

Webgear Aviator 2.4GHz wireless adapters.

Toshiba Mobile HDD MEHDD20A (Type II)

Panasonic Flash ATA BN-040ABP3

Hewlett Packard M820e (CD-writer)

3. Obtaining FreeBSD

You may obtain FreeBSD in a variety of ways:

3.1. FTP/Mail

You can ftp FreeBSD and any or all of its optional packages from
`' - the official FreeBSD release site.

For other locations that mirror the FreeBSD software see the file
MIRROR.SITES.  Please ftp the distribution from the site closest (in
networking terms) to you.  Additional mirror sites are always welcome!
Contact for more details if you'd like to
become an official mirror site.

If you do not have access to the Internet and electronic mail is your
only recourse, then you may still fetch the files by sending mail to
`' - putting the keyword "help" in your message
to get more information on how to fetch files using this mechanism.
Please do note, however, that this will end up sending many *tens of
megabytes* through the mail and should only be employed as an absolute
LAST resort!

3.2. CDROM

FreeBSD 4.x-RELEASE CDs may be ordered on CDROM from:

        BSDi / Walnut Creek CDROM
        4041 Pike Lane, Suite D
        Concord CA  94520
        +1-800-786-9907, +1-925-674-0783, +1-925-674-0821 (FAX)

Or via the Internet from or
Their current catalog can be obtained via ftp from:

Cost per -RELEASE CD is $39.95 or $24.95 with a FreeBSD subscription.
FreeBSD SNAPshot CDs, when available, are $39.95 or $14.95 with a
FreeBSD-SNAP subscription (-RELEASE and -SNAP subscriptions are entirely
separate).  With a subscription, you will automatically receive updates as
they are released.  Your credit card will be billed when each disk is
shipped and you may cancel your subscription at any time without further

Shipping (per order not per disc) is $5 in the US, Canada or Mexico
and $9.00 overseas.  They accept Visa, Mastercard, Discover, American
Express or checks in U.S. Dollars and ship COD within the United
States.  California residents please add 8.25% sales tax.

Should you be dissatisfied for any reason, the CD comes with an
unconditional return policy.

4. Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD

If you're upgrading from a previous release of FreeBSD, most likely
it's 3.0 and there may be some issues affecting you, depending
of course on your chosen method of upgrading.  There are two popular
ways of upgrading FreeBSD distributions:

        o Using sources, via /usr/src
        o Using sysinstall's (binary) upgrade option.

Please read the UPGRADE.TXT file for more information, preferably
before beginning an upgrade.

5. Reporting problems, making suggestions, submitting code.
Your suggestions, bug reports and contributions of code are always
valued - please do not hesitate to report any problems you may find
(preferably with a fix attached, if you can!).

The preferred method to submit bug reports from a machine with
Internet mail connectivity is to use the send-pr command or use the CGI
script at  Bug reports
will be dutifully filed by our faithful bugfiler program and you can
be sure that we'll do our best to respond to all reported bugs as soon
as possible.  Bugs filed in this way are also visible on our WEB site
in the support section and are therefore valuable both as bug reports
and as "signposts" for other users concerning potential problems to
watch out for.

If, for some reason, you are unable to use the send-pr command to
submit a bug report, you can try to send it to:


Note that send-pr itself is a shell script that should be easy to move
even onto a totally different system.  We much prefer if you could use
this interface, since it make it easier to keep track of the problem
reports.  However, before submitting, please try to make sure whether
the problem might have already been fixed since.

Otherwise, for any questions or tech support issues, please send mail to:


If you're tracking the -stable development efforts, you should
definitely join the -stable mailing list, in order to keep abreast
of recent developments and changes that may affect the way you
use and maintain the system:

Additionally, being a volunteer effort, we are always happy to have
extra hands willing to help - there are already far more desired
enhancements than we'll ever be able to manage by ourselves!  To
contact us on technical matters, or with offers of help, please send
mail to:


Please note that these mailing lists can experience *significant*
amounts of traffic and if you have slow or expensive mail access and
are only interested in keeping up with significant FreeBSD events, you
may find it preferable to subscribe instead to:


All of the mailing lists can be freely joined by anyone wishing
to do so.  Send mail to and include the keyword
`help' on a line by itself somewhere in the body of the message.  This
will give you more information on joining the various lists, accessing
archives, etc.  There are a number of mailing lists targeted at
special interest groups not mentioned here, so send mail to majordomo
and ask about them!

6. Acknowledgments

FreeBSD represents the cumulative work of many hundreds, if not
thousands, of individuals from around the world who have worked very
hard to bring you this release.  For a complete list of FreeBSD
project staffers, please see:

or, if you've loaded the doc distribution:


Special thanks also go to the many thousands of FreeBSD users and testers
all over the world, without whom this release simply would not have been

                        The FreeBSD Project

Last modified on: February 21, 2021 by Danilo G. Baio