FreeBSD The Power to Serve

FreeBSD 4.1 Release Notes

                                 RELEASE NOTES
                              FreeBSD 4.1-RELEASE

Any installation failures or crashes should be reported by using the
send-pr command (those preferring a Web-based interface can also see

For information about FreeBSD and the layout of the 4.1-RELEASE
directory (especially if you're installing from floppies!), see
ABOUT.TXT.  For installation instructions, see the INSTALL.TXT and

For the latest 4.1-stable snapshots (post-4.1 snaps), you should
always see:

Table of contents:
1. What's new since 4.0-RELEASE

2. Supported Configurations
   2.1 Disk Controllers
   2.2 Ethernet cards
   2.3 FDDI
   2.4 ATM
   2.5 Misc

3. Obtaining FreeBSD
   3.1 FTP/Mail
   3.2 CDROM

4. Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD

5. Reporting problems, making suggestions, submitting code

6. Acknowledgements

1. What's new since 4.0-RELEASE


FreeBSD 4.1-RELEASE contains updated code from the KAME project
( including the following features:

* Significantly improved IPSEC functionality.  In particular, IPSEC
  security associations must no longer be manually keyed: the new code
  supports racoon, the KAME IKE daemon, which is located in
  /usr/ports/security/racoon.  Racoon has been shown to interoperate
  well with other vendor IKE systems, meaning that FreeBSD 4.1 can be
  used in a heterogeneous IPSEC environment.  However, racoon *is*
  still a work in progress, meaning that there may still be bugs,
  configuration syntax changes, etc.

* About 9 months of fixes and improvements to the IPv6 code relative to
  what was in 4.0-RELEASE.

* FreeBSD 4.1 can now be installed on an IPv6-only network - this will be
  the first release of FreeBSD that never needs to operate using IPv4 at
  all! (Listed as Japan #7 in sysinstall) is an
  IPv6-reachable mirror site for installation and package-fetching.

* The ALTQ traffic-shaping system has not yet been merged - it will
  hopefully be added before the release of 4.2.  The more experimental
  KAME code has also not been merged.  If you need those features,
  consider using the 4.1-RELEASE+KAME snapshots from which will become available after 4.1-RELEASE.

* KNOWN ISSUES: NFS mounts over IPSEC do not seem to work reliably in
  all cases - mount hangs and possible data corruption have been

A new event notification facility called kqueue was added to the
FreeBSD kernel.  This is a new interface which is able to replace
poll/select, offering improved performance, as well as the ability
to report many different types of events.  Support for monitoring
changes in sockets, pipes, fifos, and files are present, as well as
for signals and processes.

Support for Intel's Wired for Management 2.0 (PXE) was added to
the FreeBSD boot loader.  Due to API differences, the older PXE
versions are not supported.  This allow network booting using DHCP.

For the alpha release of FreeBSD, the following specifics also

   FreeBSD/alpha now posseses a loader with FICL (Forth support) builtin.

   Parallel ports are now supported.

   Support for multiple new Alpha system types has been added. Please
   check HARDWARE.TXT for details.

   AlphaServer 4100 (Rawhide) does not want to allow installation using
   floppies or cdrom. Workaround is to install using another Alpha machine and
   move the disk to the AS4100. Once installed FreeBSD runs fine.

   AlphaServer 2100A (Lynx) is not supported in this release. Note that
   AlphaServer 2100 (Sable) works fine.

   Machines that have onboard IDE interfaces that their SRM can boot from
   are now supported with the IDE disk being the root/boot device. See
   HARDWARE.TXT for machine specifics like speed, use of DMA etc.

   Note that TGA consoles (either builtin or on TGA expansion cards) will
   not work. You will need to use a serial console or install a VGA card.


The kernel and userland have been audited for bugs and security
vulnerabilities resulting from the incorrect use of format strings in
vfprintf()-like functions.  No vulnerabilities were discovered.

For additional security fixes, see the list of released Security
Advisories located at


Support for the KAME IKE daemon, racoon, as noted in section 1.1 above.

Several additional system utilities (whois, fetch, and possibly
others) have gained the ability to operate over IPv6.

cdcontrol(1) now supports a "cdid" command, which calculates and
displays the CD serial number, using the same algorithm used by the CDDB

mtree(8) now includes support for a file listing pathnames to be excluded
when creating and verifying prototypes.  This makes it easier to use
mtree as a part of an intrusion-detection system.

The OPIE one-time-password suite has been updated to 2.32.

OpenSSH has been upgraded to 2.1.0, which provides support for the
SSH2 protocol, including DSA keys.  Therefore, OpenSSH users in the US
no longer need to rely on the restrictively-licensed RSAREF toolkit
which is required to handle RSA keys.  OpenSSH 2.1 interoperates well
with other SSH2 clients and servers, including the ssh2 port.  See for more details.

OpenSSH can now authenticate using OPIE passwords in SSH1 mode.
Support is not yet available in SSH2 mode.

camcontrol(8) now includes a built in 'format' function to low-level
format SCSI disks.

Support for USB devices was added to the GENERIC kernel and to the
installation programs to support USB devices out of the box.  Note that
an AT keyboard must still be used during the initial install, but it
should work fine afterwards.

The entire i386 bootstrap was revamped to support automatic detection and
use of the Enhanced Disk Drive BIOS extensions to support booting beyond
the 1023rd cylinder.  As part of this change, the FreeBSD boot manager
(boot0) was increased from 1 sector in size (512 bytes), to 2 sectors in
length (1024 bytes).  As a result, several userland changes were made to
cope with MBR boot loaders of varying sizes.

libfetch has been greatly improved.  fetch(1) and the pkg tools now use
libfetch instead of libftpio, which means that the pkg tools have gained
HTTP support, and both have gained IPv6 support.

The csh(1) shell has been replaced by tcsh(1), although it can still
be run as csh(1).

The more(1) command has been replaced by less(1), although it can still
be run as more(1).

ls(1) can produce colorized listings with the -G flag (and appropriate
terminal support).

2. Supported Configurations
FreeBSD currently runs on a wide variety of ISA, VLB, EISA, MCA and PCI
bus based PC's, ranging from 386sx to Pentium class machines (though the
386sx is not recommended).  Support for generic IDE or ESDI drive
configurations, various SCSI controller, network and serial cards is
also provided.

What follows is a list of all peripherals currently known to work with
FreeBSD.  Other configurations may also work, we have simply not as yet
received confirmation of this.

2.1. Disk Controllers
WD1003 (any generic MFM/RLL)
WD1007 (any generic IDE/ESDI)

Adaptec 1535 ISA SCSI controllers
Adaptec 154x series ISA SCSI controllers
Adaptec 164x series MCA SCSI controllers
Adaptec 174x series EISA SCSI controller in standard and enhanced mode.
Adaptec 274X/284X/2920C/294x/2950/3940/3950 (Narrow/Wide/Twin) series
EISA/VLB/PCI SCSI controllers.
Adaptec AIC7850, AIC7860, AIC7880, AIC789x, on-board SCSI controllers.
Adaptec 1510 series ISA SCSI controllers (not for bootable devices)
Adaptec 152x series ISA SCSI controllers
Adaptec AIC-6260 and AIC-6360 based boards, which includes the AHA-152x
and SoundBlaster SCSI cards.

AdvanSys SCSI controllers (all models).

BusLogic MultiMaster controllers:

[ Please note that BusLogic/Mylex "Flashpoint" adapters are NOT yet supported ]

BusLogic MultiMaster "W" Series Host Adapters:
    BT-948, BT-958, BT-958D
BusLogic MultiMaster "C" Series Host Adapters:
    BT-946C, BT-956C, BT-956CD, BT-445C, BT-747C, BT-757C, BT-757CD, BT-545C,
BusLogic MultiMaster "S" Series Host Adapters:
    BT-445S, BT-747S, BT-747D, BT-757S, BT-757D, BT-545S, BT-542D, BT-742A,
BusLogic MultiMaster "A" Series Host Adapters:
    BT-742A, BT-542B

AMI FastDisk controllers that are true BusLogic MultiMaster clones are also

The Buslogic/Bustek BT-640 and Storage Dimensions SDC3211B and SDC3211F
Microchannel (MCA) bus adapters are also supported.

SmartRAID IV SCSI/RAID controllers are supported.  The DPT SmartRAID/CACHE V
is not yet supported.

AMI MegaRAID Express and Enterprise family RAID controllers:
    MegaRAID 418
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1200 (428)
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1300
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1400
    MegaRAID Enterprise 1500
    MegaRAID Elite 1500
    MegaRAID Express 200
    MegaRAID Express 300
    Dell PERC
    Dell PERC 2/SC
    Dell PERC 2/DC
Some HP NetRAID controllers are OEM versions of AMI designs, and
these are also supported.  Booting from these controllers is supported.

Mylex DAC960 and DAC1100 RAID controllers with 2.x, 3.x, 4.x and 5.x
    AcceleRAID 150
    AcceleRAID 250
    eXtremeRAID 1100
Booting from these controllers is supported. EISA adapters are not

SymBios (formerly NCR) 53C810, 53C810a, 53C815, 53C820, 53C825a,
53C860, 53C875, 53C875j, 53C885, 53C895 and 53C896 PCI SCSI controllers:
        ASUS SC-200
        Data Technology DTC3130 (all variants)
    Diamond FirePort (all)
        NCR cards (all)
        Symbios cards (all)
        Tekram DC390W, 390U and 390F
        Tyan S1365

QLogic 1020, 1040, 1040B, 1080 and 1240 SCSI Host Adapters.
QLogic 2100 Fibre Channel Adapters (private loop only).

DTC 3290 EISA SCSI controller in 1542 emulation mode.

With all supported SCSI controllers, full support is provided for
SCSI-I & SCSI-II peripherals, including hard disks, optical disks,
tape drives (including DAT and 8mm Exabyte), medium changers, processor
target devices and CDROM drives.  WORM devices that support CDROM commands
are supported for read-only access by the CDROM driver.  WORM/CD-R/CD-RW
writing support is provided by cdrecord, which is in the ports tree.

The following CD-ROM type systems are supported at this time:
(cd)    SCSI interface (also includes ProAudio Spectrum and
        SoundBlaster SCSI)
(matcd) Matsushita/Panasonic (Creative SoundBlaster) proprietary
        interface (562/563 models)
(scd)   Sony proprietary interface (all models)
(acd)   ATAPI IDE interface

The following drivers were supported under the old SCSI subsystem, but are
NOT YET supported under the new CAM SCSI subsystem:

  NCR5380/NCR53400 ("ProAudio Spectrum") SCSI controller.

  UltraStor 14F, 24F and 34F SCSI controllers.

  Seagate ST01/02 SCSI controllers.

  Future Domain 8xx/950 series SCSI controllers.

  WD7000 SCSI controller.

  [ Note:  There is work-in-progress to port the UltraStor driver to
    the new CAM SCSI framework, but no estimates on when or if it will
    be completed. ]

Unmaintained drivers, they might or might not work for your hardware:

  (mcd)   Mitsumi proprietary CD-ROM interface (all models)

2.2. Ethernet cards

Adaptec Duralink PCI Fast Ethernet adapters based on the Adaptec
AIC-6915 Fast Ethernet controller chip, including the following:
  ANA-62011 64-bit single port 10/100baseTX adapter
  ANA-62022 64-bit dual port 10/100baseTX adapter
  ANA-62044 64-bit quad port 10/100baseTX adapter
  ANA-69011 32-bit single port 10/100baseTX adapter
  ANA-62020 64-bit single port 100baseFX adapter

Allied-Telesis AT1700 and RE2000 cards

Alteon Networks PCI Gigabit Ethernet NICs based on the Tigon 1 and Tigon 2
chipsets, including the following:
  Alteon AceNIC (Tigon 1 and 2)
  3Com 3c985-SX (Tigon 1 and 2)
  Netgear GA620 (Tigon 2)
  Silicon Graphics Gigabit Ethernet
  DEC/Compaq EtherWORKS 1000
  NEC Gigabit Ethernet

AMD PCnet/PCI (79c970 & 53c974 or 79c974)

SMC Elite 16 WD8013 Ethernet interface, and most other WD8003E,
WD8003EBT, WD8003W, WD8013W, WD8003S, WD8003SBT and WD8013EBT
based clones.  SMC Elite Ultra.  SMC Etherpower II.

RealTek 8129/8139 Fast Ethernet NICs including the following:
  Allied Telesyn AT2550
  Allied Telesyn AT2500TX
  Genius GF100TXR (RTL8139)
  NDC Communications NE100TX-E
  OvisLink LEF-8129TX
  OvisLink LEF-8139TX
  Netronix Inc. EA-1210 NetEther 10/100
  KTX-9130TX 10/100 Fast Ethernet
  Accton "Cheetah" EN1027D (MPX 5030/5038; RealTek 8139 clone?)
  SMC EZ Card 10/100 PCI 1211-TX

Lite-On 82c168/82c169 PNIC Fast Ethernet NICs including the following:
  LinkSys EtherFast LNE100TX
  NetGear FA310-TX Rev. D1
  Matrox FastNIC 10/100
  Kingston KNE110TX

Macronix 98713, 98713A, 98715, 98715A and 98725 Fast Ethernet NICs
  NDC Communications SFA100A (98713A)
  CNet Pro120A (98713 or 98713A)
  CNet Pro120B (98715)
  SVEC PN102TX (98713)

Macronix/Lite-On PNIC II LC82C115 Fast Ethernet NICs including the following:
  LinkSys EtherFast LNE100TX Version 2

Winbond W89C840F Fast Ethernet NICs including the following:
  Trendware TE100-PCIE

VIA Technologies VT3043 "Rhine I" and VT86C100A "Rhine II" Fast Ethernet
NICs including the following:
  Hawking Technologies PN102TX
  D-Link DFE-530TX
  AOpen/Acer ALN-320

Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900 and SiS 7016 PCI Fast Ethernet NICs

Sundance Technologies ST201 PCI Fast Ethernet NICs including
the following:
  D-Link DFE-550TX

SysKonnect SK-984x PCI Gigabit Ethernet cards including the following:
  SK-9841 1000baseLX single mode fiber, single port
  SK-9842 1000baseSX multimode fiber, single port
  SK-9843 1000baseLX single mode fiber, dual port
  SK-9844 1000baseSX multimode fiber, dual port

Texas Instruments ThunderLAN PCI NICs, including the following:
  Compaq Netelligent 10, 10/100, 10/100 Proliant, 10/100 Dual-Port
  Compaq Netelligent 10/100 TX Embedded UTP, 10 T PCI UTP/Coax, 10/100 TX UTP
  Compaq NetFlex 3P, 3P Integrated, 3P w/ BNC
  Olicom OC-2135/2138, OC-2325, OC-2326 10/100 TX UTP
  Racore 8165 10/100baseTX
  Racore 8148 10baseT/100baseTX/100baseFX multi-personality

ADMtek Inc. AL981-based PCI Fast Ethernet NICs
ADMtek Inc. AN985-based PCI Fast Ethernet NICs
ADMtek Inc. AN986-based USB Ethernet NICs including the following:
  LinkSys USB100TX
  Billionton USB100
  Melco Inc. LU-ATX
  D-Link DSB-650TX
  SMC 2202USB

CATC USB-EL1210A-based USB Ethernet NICs including the following:
  CATC Netmate
  CATC Netmate II
  Belkin F5U111

Kawasaki LSI KU5KUSB101B-based USB Ethernet NICs including
the following:
  LinkSys USB10T
  Entrega NET-USB-E45
  Peracom USB Ethernet Adapter
  3Com 3c19250
  ADS Technologies USB-10BT
  ATen UC10T
  Netgear EA101
  D-Link DSB-650
  SMC 2102USB
  SMC 2104USB
  Corega USB-T

ASIX Electronics AX88140A PCI NICs, including the following:
  Alfa Inc. GFC2204
  CNet Pro110B

DEC EtherWORKS III NICs (DE203, DE204, and DE205)
DEC EtherWORKS II NICs (DE200, DE201, DE202, and DE422)
DEC DC21040, DC21041, or DC21140 based NICs (SMC Etherpower 8432T, DE245, etc)

Davicom DM9100 and DM9102 PCI Fast Ethernet NICs, including the
  Jaton Corporation XpressNet

Fujitsu MB86960A/MB86965A

HP PC Lan+ cards (model numbers: 27247B and 27252A).

Intel EtherExpress 16
Intel EtherExpress Pro/10
Intel EtherExpress Pro/100B PCI Fast Ethernet
Intel InBusiness 10/100 PCI Network Adapter
Intel PRO/100+ Management Adapter

Isolan AT 4141-0 (16 bit)
Isolink 4110     (8 bit)

Novell NE1000, NE2000, and NE2100 Ethernet interface.

PCI network cards emulating the NE2000: RealTek 8029, NetVin 5000,
Winbond W89C940, Surecom NE-34, VIA VT86C926.

3Com 3C501 cards

3Com 3C503 Etherlink II

3Com 3c505 Etherlink/+

3Com 3C507 Etherlink 16/TP

3Com 3C509, 3C529 (MCA), 3C579,
3C589/589B/589C/589D/589E/XE589ET/574TX/574B (PC-card/PCMCIA),
3C590/592/595/900/905/905B/905C PCI
and EISA (Fast) Etherlink III / (Fast) Etherlink XL

3Com 3c980/3c980B Fast Etherlink XL server adapter

3Com 3cSOHO100-TX OfficeConnect adapter

Toshiba Ethernet cards

Crystal Semiconductor CS89x0-based NICs, including:
  IBM Etherjet ISA

NE2000 compatible PC-Card (PCMCIA) Ethernet/FastEthernet cards,
including the following:
  AR-P500 Ethernet card
  Accton EN2212/EN2216/UE2216(OEM)
  Allied Telesis CentreCOM LA100-PCM_V2
  AmbiCom 10BaseT card
  BayNetworks NETGEAR FA410TXC Fast Ethernet
  CNet BC40 adapter
  Compex Net-A adapter
  CyQ've ELA-010
  D-Link DE-650/660
  Danpex EN-6200P2
  IBM Creditcard Ethernet I/II
  IC-CARD Ethernet/IC-CARD+ Ethernet
  Linksys EC2T/PCMPC100
  Melco LPC-T
  NDC Ethernet Instant-Link
  National Semiconductor InfoMover NE4100
  Network Everywhere Ethernet 10BaseT PC Card
  Planex FNW-3600-T
  Socket LP-E
  Surecom EtherPerfect EP-427
  Telecom Device SuperSocket RE450T

Megahertz X-Jack Ethernet PC-Card CC-10BT

2.3. FDDI


2.4. ATM

   o ATM Host Interfaces
        - FORE Systems, Inc. PCA-200E ATM PCI Adapters
        - Efficient Networks, Inc. ENI-155p ATM PCI Adapters

   o ATM Signalling Protocols
        - The ATM Forum UNI 3.1 signalling protocol
        - The ATM Forum UNI 3.0 signalling protocol
        - The ATM Forum ILMI address registration
        - FORE Systems's proprietary SPANS signalling protocol
        - Permanent Virtual Channels (PVCs)

   o IETF "Classical IP and ARP over ATM" model
        - RFC 1483, "Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5"
        - RFC 1577, "Classical IP and ARP over ATM"
        - RFC 1626, "Default IP MTU for use over ATM AAL5"
        - RFC 1755, "ATM Signaling Support for IP over ATM"
        - RFC 2225, "Classical IP and ARP over ATM"
        - RFC 2334, "Server Cache Synchronization Protocol (SCSP)"
        - Internet Draft draft-ietf-ion-scsp-atmarp-00.txt,
                "A Distributed ATMARP Service Using SCSP"

   o ATM Sockets interface

2.5. Misc

AST 4 port serial card using shared IRQ.

ARNET 8 port serial card using shared IRQ.
ARNET (now Digiboard) Sync 570/i high-speed serial.

Boca BB1004 4-Port serial card (Modems NOT supported)
Boca IOAT66 6-Port serial card (Modems supported)
Boca BB1008 8-Port serial card (Modems NOT supported)
Boca BB2016 16-Port serial card (Modems supported)

Comtrol Rocketport card.

Cyclades Cyclom-y Serial Board.

STB 4 port card using shared IRQ.

SDL Communications Riscom/8 Serial Board.
SDL Communications RISCom/N2 and N2pci high-speed sync serial boards.

Stallion multiport serial boards: EasyIO, EasyConnection 8/32 & 8/64,
ONboard 4/16 and Brumby.

Specialix SI/XIO/SX ISA, EISA and PCI serial expansion cards/modules.

Adlib, SoundBlaster, SoundBlaster Pro, ProAudioSpectrum, Gravis UltraSound
and Roland MPU-401 sound cards. (snd driver)

Most ISA audio codecs manufactured by Crystal Semiconductors, OPTi, Creative
Labs, Avance, Yamaha and ENSONIQ. (pcm driver)

Connectix QuickCam
Matrox Meteor Video frame grabber
Creative Labs Video Spigot frame grabber
Cortex1 frame grabber
Hauppauge Wincast/TV boards (PCI)
Intel Smart Video Recorder III
Various Frame grabbers based on Brooktree Bt848 / Bt878 chip.

HP4020, HP6020, Philips CDD2000/CDD2660 and Plasmon CD-R drives.

PS/2 mice

Standard PC Joystick

X-10 power controllers

GPIB and Transputer drivers.

Genius and Mustek hand scanners.

Xilinx XC6200 based reconfigurable hardware cards compatible with
the HOT1 from Virtual Computers (

Support for Dave Mills experimental Loran-C receiver.

Lucent Technologies WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11 PCMCIA and ISA standard speed
(2Mbps) and turbo speed (6Mbps) wireless network adapters and workalikes
(NCR WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11, Cabletron RoamAbout 802.11 DS, and Melco
Airconnect). Note: the ISA versions of these adapters are actually PCMCIA
cards combined with an ISA to PCMCIA bridge card, so both kinds of
devices work with the same driver.

Aironet 4500/4800 series 802.11 wireless adapters. The PCMCIA,
PCI and ISA adapters are all supported.

3. Obtaining FreeBSD

You may obtain FreeBSD in a variety of ways:

3.1. FTP/Mail

You can ftp FreeBSD and any or all of its optional packages from
`' - the official FreeBSD release site.

For other locations that mirror the FreeBSD software see the file
MIRROR.SITES.  Please ftp the distribution from the site closest (in
networking terms) to you.  Additional mirror sites are always welcome!
Contact for more details if you'd like to
become an official mirror site.

3.2. CDROM

FreeBSD 4.1-RELEASE and 3.x-RELEASE CDs may be ordered on CDROM from:

        4041 Pike Lane, Suite F
        Concord CA  94520
        1-800-786-9907, +1-925-674-0783, +1-925-674-0821 (FAX)

Or via the Internet from or

Cost per -RELEASE CD is $39.95 or $24.95 with a FreeBSD subscription.
FreeBSD SNAPshot CDs, when available, are $39.95 or $14.95 with a
FreeBSD-SNAP subscription (-RELEASE and -SNAP subscriptions are entirely
separate).  With a subscription, you will automatically receive updates as
they are released.  Your credit card will be billed when each disk is
shipped and you may cancel your subscription at any time without further

Shipping (per order not per disc) is $5 in the US, Canada or Mexico
and $9.00 overseas.  They accept Visa, Mastercard, Discover, American
Express or checks in U.S. Dollars and ship COD within the United
States.  California residents please add 8.25% sales tax.

Should you be dissatisfied for any reason, the CD comes with an
unconditional return policy.

4. Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD

If you're upgrading from a previous release of FreeBSD, most likely
it's 3.0 and there may be some issues affecting you, depending
of course on your chosen method of upgrading.  There are two popular
ways of upgrading FreeBSD distributions:

        o Using sources, via /usr/src
        o Using sysinstall's (binary) upgrade option.

Please read the UPGRADE.TXT file for more information, preferably
before beginning an upgrade.

5. Reporting problems, making suggestions, submitting code.
Your suggestions, bug reports and contributions of code are always
valued - please do not hesitate to report any problems you may find
(preferably with a fix attached, if you can!).

The preferred method to submit bug reports from a machine with
Internet mail connectivity is to use the send-pr command or use the CGI
script at  Bug reports
will be dutifully filed by our faithful bugfiler program and you can
be sure that we'll do our best to respond to all reported bugs as soon
as possible.  Bugs filed in this way are also visible on our WEB site
in the support section and are therefore valuable both as bug reports
and as "signposts" for other users concerning potential problems to
watch out for.

If, for some reason, you are unable to use the send-pr command to
submit a bug report, you can try to send it to:


Note that send-pr itself is a shell script that should be easy to move
even onto a totally different system.  We much prefer if you could use
this interface, since it make it easier to keep track of the problem
reports.  However, before submitting, please try to make sure whether
the problem might have already been fixed since.

Otherwise, for any questions or tech support issues, please send mail to:


If you're tracking the -stable development efforts, you should
definitely join the -stable mailing list, in order to keep abreast
of recent developments and changes that may affect the way you
use and maintain the system:

Additionally, being a volunteer effort, we are always happy to have
extra hands willing to help - there are already far more desired
enhancements than we'll ever be able to manage by ourselves!  To
contact us on technical matters, or with offers of help, please send
mail to:


Please note that these mailing lists can experience *significant*
amounts of traffic and if you have slow or expensive mail access and
are only interested in keeping up with significant FreeBSD events, you
may find it preferable to subscribe instead to:


All of the mailing lists can be freely joined by anyone wishing
to do so.  Send mail to and include the keyword
`help' on a line by itself somewhere in the body of the message.  This
will give you more information on joining the various lists, accessing
archives, etc.  There are a number of mailing lists targeted at
special interest groups not mentioned here, so send mail to majordomo
and ask about them!

6. Acknowledgements

FreeBSD represents the cumulative work of many dozens, if not
hundreds, of individuals from around the world who have worked very
hard to bring you this release.  For a complete list of FreeBSD
project staffers, please see:

or, if you've loaded the doc distribution:


Special mention to:

        The donors listed at
        and to the many thousands of FreeBSD users and testers all over the
        world, without whom this release simply would not have been possible.

We sincerely hope you enjoy this release of FreeBSD!

                        The FreeBSD Project

Last modified on: February 21, 2021 by Danilo G. Baio